Any construction project, proper planning is very important to ensure that the timelines are met and the construction is strong and durable. With the rapid development taking place in the industry, there is often a multiplicity of factors to be considered and decision making can be complex. To avoid your dependency upon the site engineer or contractor, it is advisable to be aware of certain important aspects with regard to construction planning.
An important feature is regularity and symmetry in the overall shape of the building. A building shaped like a box, such as rectangular both in plan and elevation is inherently stronger than one that is L-shaped or U-shaped such as a building with wings.
Separation of Blocks
Separation of a large building into several blocks may have to be done in order to obtain symmetry and regularity of each block. Separated sections can be treated just like expansion joints.
Even before the construction commences, it is essential to check for certain adverse factors whose existence would necessitate the abandonment of that particular site for construction. 1. Immediate neighbourhood of rivers carrying heavy floods 2. Reclaimed soils; land subject to subsidence or settlement 3. Smoke or obnoxious odour due to vicinity to industrial areas
Besides the above factors, you must also ensure that the construction site should not be a part of a land depression. The topographical conditions of a site not only determine its elevation and foundation, but also affect the laying of sewers and drains.
The geological conditions of the site are also important factors to be considered due to their effect on the foundation and the subsequent life and strength of the construction. If there is a rocky base on the surface or below, the site is optimum as it provides an excellent base for laying the foundation and also prevents damage due to moisture.
In northern India, longer walls are generally placed towards north & south and shorter walls towards east & west, so that minimum possible walls are exposed to the sun. The general wind direction of the site also determines the orientation of the building.
It is a good practice to keep plinth level 60 to 75 centimeters above natural ground level.
Damp Proof Course
Provide a Damp Proof Course (D.P.C.) at plinth level in cement concrete by adding water -proofing compound in the ratio 1 : 2 : 4.
Provide R.C.C. bands at sill, lintel and roof levels for load bearing constructions.
Soak the red bricks in clear water thoroughly before use.
It is desirable to provide expansion joints after every 30 meter length of wall.
Half brick masonry wall should be reinforced with suitable reinforcement at every third or fourth course of wall.
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